References – Hair Analysis (return to Nutrition and Toxic Elements)
“The neurotoxicity of methylmercury in children exposed in utero has been determined to be the critical effect for the human RfD. Maternal hair mercury concentrations predict mercury concentrations in fetal brain (Cernichiari et al., 1995), fetal blood (Cernichiari et al., 1995), umbilical cord blood (Wheatley and Paradis, 1995; Girard and Dumont, 1995), and newborn hair (Chai et al.,1994).”
Several research programs for studying and establishing hair trace mineral concentrations have been implemented since 1965 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. These research programs have been coordinated under “Nuclear-based Methods for the Analysis of Pollutants in Human Hair.” Hair was chosen by the I.A.E.A. due to the concentration of minerals in the hair and its reflection of both external and internal contamination. The bulk of data on trace element concentrations has been reported from hair samples obtained from the scalp.
Ryabukhin, T.S.: International Coordinated Program on Activation Analysis of Trace Element Pollutants in Human Hair. Hair, Trace Elements, and Human Illness. Brown, A. C.; Crounse, R. G., ed. Praeger Publications, 1980.
“Bioassay of hair is attractive as it is an effective bio-concentrator, samples can be easily stored, the concentration reflects an integrated value, and, finally, the measurement of the (234)U/(238)U isotopic ratio in digested hair samples by MC-ICPMS is feasible and highly informative.”
Karpas Z, Lorber A, Sela H, Paz-Tal O, Hagag Y, Kurttio P, Salonen L., Measurement of the 234U/238U ratio by MC-ICPMS in drinking water, hair, nails, and urine as an indicator of uranium exposure source. Health Phys. 2005 Oct;89(4):315-21.
“Human head hair is a recording filament that can reflect metabolic changes of many elements over long periods of time and thus furnish a print-out of post nutritional events.”
Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Flynn, A.; Hill, O. A.: Trace Element Nutriture and Metabolism Through Head Hair Analysis. Trace Substances in Environmental Health. Hemphill, D. D., ed. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, 1972.
It is well known that nutritional mineral deficiency can impair neurological development. Some transitional nutrients can cause later-life health disturbances when deficient in the diet, but in excess can be just as harmful and include iron, copper, manganese, zinc and others. Heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are also neurotoxins and when present early in life can contribute to impaired neuro-development and detrimental health effects later in life and have been called the “fetal origins of disease.” Hair concentrations of cadmium compared to reference groups were found to be higher in children with mental retardation, learning disabilities, dyslexia and lower I.Q.
Metals and Neurotoxicology. Wright, RO, et al. J. Of Nutr. 138,12, 2007.
Hair, blood and urine minerals analyzed in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic controls showed that the mean levels of zinc, manganese and chromium were significantly lower in the blood and scalp hair of patients diagnosed with diabetes. Higher levels of copper and iron were also found in the scalp hair of the diabetic group as well.
Copper, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Nickel and Zinc Levels in Biological Samples of Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Kazi, TS, et al. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 122,1, 2008.
“Statistical evaluation of these data by multivariant analysis (MANOVA) using a contrast matrix and by discriminant analysis showed that elemental hair anomalies can be used to diagnose correctly the above-mentioned pathologies, demonstrating the usefulness of hair analysis as a complementary tool for the detection of disturbances in calcium/bone metabolism.”
Miekeley, N., et al. Elemental Anomalies in Hair as Indicators of Endocrinologic Pathologies and Deficiencies in Calcium and Bone Metabolism., J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 15, 1, 2005
“The consensus of most workers in the field is that if hair samples are collected properly, cleaned and prepared for analysis correctly and analyzed by the best analytical methods, using standards and blanks as required, in a clean and reliable laboratory, by experienced personnel, the data are reliable.”
Toxic Trace Metals in Mammalian Hair and Nails. United States Environmental Protection Agency Publication 1979; EPA-600/4: 79: 049
A study of men over a period of thirteen years found that for each microgram of mercury found in the hair, the risk of acute coronary events increased by an average of eleven percent and cardiovascular disease death rate by ten percent.
Mercury as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease. J. Nutr. Biochem. 18, 2007.
An example of how mineral intake is reflected in the hair was demonstrated in a study of several thousand Iraqi peasants, whose diet contained grain heavily treated with fungicides. The fungicides contained organic mercury, which was reflected in higher concentrations in the hair when consumption was highest and decreased when consumption was lowest. Hair concentrations correlated directly with the extent of symptoms.
Al-Shahristani, H.; Al-Haddad, I. K.: Mercury Content of Hair From Normal and Poisoned Persons. J Radioanalytical Chem 1973; 15.
Al-Shahristani, H.; Shihab, K. M.: Variation of Biological Half-Life of Methylmercury in Man. Arch Environ Health 1974; 28.
Hair samples collected and analyzed from five countries with known arsenic sources, both high and low included the United States, Canada, and People’s Republic of China, Bangladesh and Nepal. Hair arsenic concentration in all hair samples correlated with the amount of arsenic in drinking water and revealed the low intake of selenium in areas of high arsenic concentrations. “The results demonstrate the viability of hair as a noninvasive biomonitor in assessing aspects of dietary Se and environmental As exposure.”
Spallholz JE, Boylan LM, Palace V, Chen J, Smith L, Rahman MM, Robertson JD., Arsenic and Selenium in Human Hair; A comparison of Five Countries With and Without Arsenicosis., Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Aug;106(2):133-44.
“The proliferation of trace element analysis as a tool for biological investigation of nutrition, growth and development, and disease processes has led to consideration of (hair) trace element analysis as a means not only of present evaluation and estimation, but also as a technique for the reconstruction of past biological events in an organism.”
Gilbert, R. I.: Trace Elements in Human Hair and Bone. Hair, Trace Elements and Human Illness Brown, A.C.; Crounse, R. G. ed. Praeger Publications, 1980.
This study was performed to establish a relationship between elements in the serum, red cells and hair and included one hundred and seventy-four children. Tests measured the concentrations of the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, as well as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. Serum and red blood cell concentrations of cadmium and lead were within normal allowable levels, but hair levels exceeded maximum levels. Supplementation of magnesium and vitamin B6 was begun in children with elevated hair heavy metals. Follow-up tests showed a marked reduction in the lead and cadmium concentration in the hair and erythrocytes.
Concentrations of Selected Bioelements and Toxic Metals and Their Influence on Health Status of Children and Youth Residing in Szczecin. Kedzierska, E. Ann. Acad. Med. Stetin. 49, 2003.
“The significance of hair analysis as a biological indicator of abnormal intake of trace elements in man is confirmed. Geographical variations of hair trace element concentrations, on the whole, depend on geochemical conditions or nutritional factors.”
Batzevich VA., Hair trace element analysis in human ecology studies., Sci Total Environ. 1995 Mar 15;164(2):89-98.
“The result of research studies indicate that hair mineral analysis can be useful as a diagnostic tool in the examination of trace metal exposure, including abnormal nutritional intake, and may assist in the study of certain mental states. They (hair mineral analysis) may suggest mineral imbalances present in the body that perhaps could be rectified by a mineral supplemented diet.”
“Hair metal testing is a fascinating new diagnostic tool and often gives unexpected clues to mineral imbalances in the body. The authors would support this statement from the results that they have accumulated to date.”
Barlow, P. J.; Kapel, M.: Metal and Sulfur Contents of Hair in Relation to Certain Mental States. Hair, Trace Elements, and Human Illness Brown, A.C.; Crounse, R. G., eds. Praeger Publications, 1980.
“By implementation of statistic pattern recognition methods, it has been found that the concentrations of TEs in hair can remarkably reflect different recovery phases of NPC patients.”
Leung PL, Huang HM., Following the recovery of naso-pharyngeal cancer patients by trace elements in hair using statistical pattern recognition methods., Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Jun;62(3):235-53.
“We suggest that the changed element status (Zn, Mg, and Cu) in hair may play an indicator role in the diagnosis of epileptic patients.”
Ilhan A, Uz E, Kali S, Var A, Akyol O., Serum and hair trace element levels in patients with epilepsy and healthy subjects: does the antiepileptic therapy affect the element concentrations of hair?, Eur J Neurol. 1999 Nov;6(6):705-9.
Mercury, cadmium and other heavy metals have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups, inactivating enzymatic reactions, amino acids, and sulfur-containing antioxidants. Cadmium concentrations in the kidney induce renal dysfunction and contribute to hypertension due to sodium retention, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and zinc deficiency. Heavy metal toxicity should be evaluated in any patient with hypertension, cardiovascular heart disease, or other vascular disease. Specific testing for acute and chronic toxicity and total body burden using hair, nail, urine and serum with baseline and provoked evaluation should be done.
The Role of Mercury and Cadmium Heavy Metals In Vascular Disease, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease and Myocardial Infarction. Houston, MC. Altern. Ther. Health Med. 13,2,2007.
Various changes in the content of trace elements in biological samples taken from patients with idiopathic scoliosis are not accidental. What might bring a shift in our knowledge is speciation of various forms of trace elements in the organism in relation to idiopathic scoliosis.
Changes of Selenium, Copper and Zinc Content in Hair and Serum of Patients with Idiopathic Scoliosis. Dastych, M, et al. 2008 Orthopedic Research Society. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Orthop. Res.
The constituents of the hair is determined by the entry of substances from external sources and from substances which enter it from the blood stream.
Hopps, H. C.: The Biological Bases for Using Hair and Nail for Analysis of Trace Elements. Sci Tot Environ 1977; 7.
“The analysis of blood, excreted by-products, and human head hair represents method for determining body element levels.”
Pihl, R. O.; Drake, H.; Vrana, F. Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.: Hair Analysis in Learning and Behavior Problems. Hair, Trace Elements, and Human Illness. Brown, A. C.; Crounse, R. G., eds. Praeger Publications, 1980.
“Thus, it is observed that there exists some positive correlation between element levels in hair and nails and CHD, hypertension, and diabetes of these subjects.”
Sukumar A, Subramanian R., Elements in hair and nails of urban residents of New Delhi. CHD, hypertensive, and diabetic cases., Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992 Jul;34(1):89-97.
Hair chromium levels were analyzed in a healthy elderly population and an age-matched control group with type 2 diabetes. Lower hair chromium levels were observed in the diabetic group.
Longitudinal Hair Chromium Profiles of Elderly Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Stupar, J., et al. Metabolism. 56,1, 2007.
A hybrid algorithm was applied to the hair minerals from a group of healthy individuals compared to those with diabetes and was found to be a good symptom index that could recognize individuals with type 2 diabetes.
Hybrid Progressive Algorithm to Recognize Type II Diabetes Based on Hair Mineral Contents. Huang, H, et al. Conf. Proc. IEEE, Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 5, 2005.
Lead and mercury levels were analyzed in eighty one hair and blood samples obtained at delivery of newborns. The results found that hair mercury and lead negatively correlated with calcium pump activity in maternal and cord blood erythrocytes.
Hair Mercury Negatively Correlates with Calcium Pump Activity in Maternal and Cord Blood Erythrocytes. Huel, G, et al. Environ. Hlth. Perspect. 116,2, 2008.
Higher serum magnesium was associated with lower bone mineral density at the spine, whereas high hair magnesium was associated with higher bone mineral density. The study concluded that magnesium in serum and hair was associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women and the ratio of serum calcium to magnesium appears to be a significant indicator of bone density.
Associations of Calcium and Magnesium in Serum and Hair with Bone Mineral Density in Premenopausal Women. Song, CH, et al. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 118, 1, 2007.
Hair levels of iron, zinc and selenium were found lower in the study group of fifty-two children diagnosed with anemia, compared to controls.
Serum and Hair Levels of Zinc, Selenium, Iron, and Copper in Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia. Gugoze, MK, et al. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 111, 2006.
“The analysis of recently grown hair for zinc provides a biomarker of recent zinc status.”
Rush E, Li L, Chandu V, Whiting R., Hair zinc concentrations not subject to seasonal variation in adults in New Zealand., Biol Trace Elem Res. 2003 Dec;95(3):193-202.
“These data confirm that the analysis of Zn in hair represents an addition to conventional materials in the assessment of the nutritional status of groups of individuals.”
Contiero E, Folin M., Trace elements nutritional status. Use of hair as a diagnostic tool., Biol Trace Elem Res. 1994 Feb;40(2):151-60.
Dietary levels of some of the essential micro-elements have been reported to correspond to hair concentrations of the elements.
Reinhold, J. G.; Kfoury, G. A.; Ghalambor, M. A.; Jean, C.: Zinc and Copper Concentrations in Hair of Iranian Villagers. Am J Clin Nutr 1966; 18.
Strain, W. H.; Steadman, L. T.; Lankau, C. A.; Berliner, W. P.; Pories, W. J.: Analysis of Zinc Levels in Hair for the Diagnosis of Zinc Deficiency in Man. J Lab Clin Med 1966; 68.
Hair mineral analysis was performed on over three-hundred adult females with BMI’s ranging between low, normal and high. Significant differences were noted in zinc levels between women with a low BMI compared to those with a high BMI. The obese group had the lowest zinc levels as well as the lowest ratios of sodium/potassium, iron/copper and zinc/copper. “..we suggest that hair concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, K, Na and Zn may be correlated with adult female BMI, but further studies are needed.”
Wang, CT, et al., Concentrations of Calcium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium and Zinc in Adult Females hair with Different Body Mass Indexes in Taiwan., Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 43, 4, 2005
Levels of lead, cadmium and nickel in scalp hair, blood and urine samples were significantly higher in groups of exposed workers compared to those of a control group. The determination of toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure.
Evaluation of Toxic Metals in Biological Samples (Scalp Hair, Blood and Urine) of Steel Mill Workers by Electrothermal Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry. Afridi, HI, et al. Toxicol. Ind. Hlth. 9, 2006.
Mineral levels of one hundred and twenty male lung cancer patients were compared to one hundred-fifty controls. The study showed that the average cadmium concentration was high in the blood and scalp hair of lung cancer patients at different stages compared to controls.
Determination of Cadmium in Whole Blood and Scalp Hair Samples of Pakistani Male Lung Cancer Patients by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. Kazi, TG, et al. Sci. Total Environ. 389,2, 2008.
Hair tissue mineral analysis was performed on one-hundred and twenty individuals. Supplementation of magnesium and vitamin B6 was implemented in the treatment groups and placebos in the control group. Repeat hair mineral analysis revealed a positive influence as a result of supplementation. Magnesium levels were increased in the hair along with a significant reduction of the heavy metals, lead and cadmium. “The above mentioned results indicate a positive influence of magnesium supplementation on the decrease of lead and cadmium hair content in the individuals studied.”
Kozielec T, Salacka A, Karakiewicz B., The influence of magnesium supplementation on concentrations of chosen bioelements and toxic metals in adult human hair. Magnesium and chosen bioelements in hair., Magnes Res. 2004 Sep;17(3):183-8.
“From the analyses, it was clear that hair concentrations of Ca, Fe, and Zn could reflect the effects of supplementation.”
Leung PL, Huang HM, Sun DZ, Zhu MG., Hair concentrations of calcium, iron, and zinc in pregnant women and effects of supplementation., Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999 Sep;69(3):269-82.
“One such procedure which has shown great potential, at least for the determination of micro-element nutriture…, is the use of hair as the biological sample. Perhaps an even more important advantage would be that hair, by the very nature of the sample, should reflect a rather long-term nutritional state rather than recent (i.e. previous meal or day) dietary intake.”
Sauberlich, H. E.; Scala, J. H. Department of Nutrition, Letterman Army Institute of Research, San Francisco, California.
Dowdy, R. P. Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Food Systems Management, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri
“Hair may provide a continuous record of nutritional status.”
Maugh, T. H. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine. Science1978; 202.
A positive correlation of selenium levels was found between samples of umbilical cord blood and the newborn’s hair. Correlation was also found between placenta and umbilical cord blood and between cord blood and maternal blood.
Selenium Levels in Related Biological Samples: Human Placenta, Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood, Hair and Nails. Lorenzo, A, et al. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 19,1, 2005.
“Changes in the hair iron concentrations were accompanied by similar changes in the concentrations of the markers most commonly used to diagnose and monitor iron deficiency. The results suggest that quantification of hair iron may be useful to complement evaluations of the body iron status.”
Bisse E, Renner F, Sussmann S, Scholmerich J, Wieland H., Hair iron content: possible marker to complement monitoring therapy of iron deficiency in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases?, Clin Chem. 1996 Aug;42(8 Pt 1):1270-4.
“Hair calcium concentration did reflect the risk of CHD on a population basis and was strongly influenced by both the hardness of the water supply and the annual sunshine hours which also independently affected the SMR for CHD.”
MacPherson A, Bacso J., Relationship of hair calcium concentration to incidence of coronary heart disease., Sci Total Environ. 2000 Jun 8;255(1-3):11-9.
This study explored calcium and magnesium levels in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia compared to matched controls. Findings revealed significantly higher hair levels of both calcium and magnesium in the affected group. “Wilcoxon rank sum tests showed that patients with fibromyalgia had significantly higher calcium and magnesium levels than the control subjects at alpha = .025 and .05, respectively.”
Ng SY., Hair calcium and magnesium levels in patients with fibromyalgia: a case center study., J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1999 Nov-Dec;22(9):586-93.
Zinc and copper concentrations were measured in the hair and urine of patients who were hospitalized for myocardial infarction (MI). Mineral concentrations were also measured in descendants of the patients and compared to a control group. The study suggests that in MI patients, a genetic disorder of mineral imbalance at a younger age can be used in predicting susceptibility to heart disease in individuals prior to onset and diagnosis in asymptomatic patients.
Detection of Potentially Myocardial Infarction Susceptible Individuals in Indian Population: A Mathematical Model Based on Copper and Zinc Status. Taneja, SK, et al. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 75, 2000.
It is concluded that hair metal analysis in samples close to the scalp is not seriously invalidated by sources of external contamination.
Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc Concentration in Human Scalp and Pubic Hair. Wilhelm, M, et al. Instit, Toxicol. Univ. of Dussseldorf, W. Wermany. 199-206, Vol. 92, 1990.
Nickel- sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in nails, hair and plasma than control subjects.
Nickel in Nails, Hair and Plasma from Nickel-Hypersensitive Women. Gammelgaard, et al. Acta. Derm. Venereol. 417, Vol. 70, 1990.
“High content of mercury in hair may be a risk factor for acute coronary events and CVD, CHD, and all-cause mortality in middle-aged eastern Finnish men.”
Virtanen JK, Voutilainen S, Rissanen TH, Mursu J, Tuomainen TP, Korhonen MJ, Valkonen VP, Seppanen K, Laukkanen JA, Salonen JT., Mercury, fish oils, and risk of acute coronary events and cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality in men in eastern Finland., Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Jan;25(1):228-33. Epub 2004 Nov 11.
“The elemental analysis of hair is becoming increasingly popular for the assessment of nutritional status.”
Katz, S. A. Professor of Chemistry, Rutgers University.: The Use of Hair as a Biopsy Material for Trace Elements in the Body. Am Lab 1979; Feb.
“Regarding certain factors (age, sex, health, occupation, etc.), the influence causing the change in element levels is obvious, whereas the influence of other factors (structure of hair, height and weight of the subject, etc.) is obscure. It is very important to consider all the factors at the time of investigation for effective interpretation, validity, and application of results of hair analysis.”
Sukumar A., Factors influencing levels of trace elements in human hair., Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002;175:47-78.
“Research literature supports the view that trace element content of the hair and nail reflect body intake…from which one can conclude that hair and nail are suitable samples for evaluating body stores.”
Hopps, H. C.: The Biological Bases for Using Hair and Nail for Analysis of Trace Elements. Trace Substances In Environmental Health VIII. Hemphill, D.D., ed. University of Missouri, Columbia. 1974.
“Hair concentrations may provide useful information on longer term nutrition.”
Casey, C. E.; Hambidge, K. M.: Trace Element Deficiencies in Man. Advances In Nutritional Research Vol.3. Draper, H. H., ed. Plenum Pub., 1980. Hambidge, K. M.; Walravens, P.A.: Trace Elements in Nutrition. Prac Ped 1974, 1:1
“The patients were divided into three groups of ten; one group was studied two years after total hip replacement, one at four years, and one at six years. High levels of titanium and aluminum were found in the hair, especially in the group studied six years after implantation, while the levels of the three ions in the blood and urine were not significant.”
Trinchi V, Nobis M, Cecchele D., Emission spectrophotometric analysis of titanium, aluminum, and vanadium levels in the blood, urine, and hair of patients with total hip arthroplasties., Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1992;18(3):331-9.
“The study holds promise that hair selenium may be used as a monitoring tool for low-level occupational exposure to selenium.”
Srivastava AK, Gupta BN, Bihari V, Gaur JS, Mathur N., Hair selenium as a monitoring tool for occupational exposures in relation to clinical profile., J Toxicol Environ Health. 1997 Aug 8;51(5):437-45.
“The results of the quality assurance program, which included 31 participants on four continents, are described. Of the participating laboratories, 92% consistently meet QA/QC performance limits for the determination of Hg in human hair.”
Gill US, Schwartz HM, Bigras L., Results of multiyear international interlaboratory comparison program for mercury in human hair., Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002 Nov;43(4):466-72.
“The hair concentrations of Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn in the three groups of gravida were lower or significantly lower than those in controls. In sera, the differences did not show statistical significance in most cases”
Huang HM, Leung PL, Sun DZ, Zhu MG., Hair and serum calcium, iron, copper, and zinc levels during normal pregnancy at three trimesters., Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999 Aug;69(2):111-20.
“There is now a considerable body of literature on the use of hair in forensic science, in the diagnosis of disease states, and in the assessment of nutritional status.”
Stevens, B. J.: Determination of Aluminum, Copper, and Zinc in Human Hair. Atomic Spectroscopy 1983; 4:45
Results showed that hair copper concentrations could be correlated with the degree of severity, in that the higher the copper burdens, the more severe the autism. Levels of lead and mercury were also found higher in the affected group and increased with the degree of severity. Whereas, selenium and magnesium were significantly different in the low functioning group of children compared to others in the affected group as well as controls.
Priya, L, Geetha, A. Level of Trace Elements (Copper, Zinc, Magnesium and Selenium) and Toxic Elements (Lead and Mercury) in the Hair and Nail of Children with Autism. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 2010.
HTMA is a good indicator of exposure to uranium and without these tests many individuals would unknowingly be exposed to not only heavy metals such as uranium and other metals, but radon gas as well.
Kehagia, K, et al. Hair Analysis as an Indicator of Exposure to Uranium. Radial.Prot. Dosimetry. Nov. 2010.
“Both deficiency and excess of trace elements was shown to be of pathogenetic value in the development of thyroid disease.”
Hair Trace Elements in Patients with Goiter. Farkhutdinova, LM, et al. Klin Lab Diagn. Aug. (8) 2006.
Imbalances in the optimum levels of trace elements may adversely affect the biological process and are associated with many disease processes.
Rahman, A. et al. Zinc, Manganese, Calcium, Copper and Cadmium Level in Scalp Hair Samples of Schizophrenic Patients. Biol.Trace Elem. Res. 127,2, 2009.
“As part of the metabolic syndrome, the optimal calcium and magnesium concentrations in hair tissue may reflect decreased risk of metabolic syndrome.”
Hair Tissue Mineral Analysis and Metabolic Syndrome. Park, SB, et al. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 130,3, 2009.
Their research findings suggested that some minerals such as arsenic, selenium and probably iodine, zinc, sodium and vanadium contribute to the regulation of cancer and that a metallomics study using multiple logistic regression analysis is a useful tool for estimating cancer risks.
Metallomics Study Using Hair Mineral Analysis and Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis: Relationship Between Cancer and Minerals. Yasuda, H, et al. Environ. Health Prev.Med. 24,5, 2009.
Heavy metals are being increasingly recognized as mediators or factors in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease and that a deficiency, lack of homeostatic control or excess intake of some metals may lead to cardiovascular mortality.
Afridi, HI., et al. Evaluation of Toxic Elements in Scalp Hair Samples of Myocardial Infarction Patients at Different Stages as Related to Controls. Biol. Trace Elem. Res.134, 1, 2010.
“Hair lead levels have been found to correlate well with body lead contamination.”
Black AP, Knight R, Batty J, Haswell SJ, Lindow SW., An analysis of maternal and fetal hair lead levels., BJOG. 2002 Nov;109(11):1295-7.
Trace Elements and Other Essential Nutrients. Watts, D.L. T.E.I., 1995.
Hair, Trace Elements, and Human Illness. Eds. Brown, A.C., Crounse, R.G. Praeger Pub.1980.
Hair Analysis. Applications in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Chatt, A., Katz, S.S. VCH Pub. 1988.
Human Hair Vol. 1. Fundamentals and Methods for Measurement of Elements Composition. Valkovic, V. CRC Press. 1988.
Human Hair, Vol II. Trace-Element Levels. Valkovic, V. CRC Press. 1988.
Laboratory Tests For The Assessment Of Nutritional Status. Sauberlich, H.E., et al. CRC Press. 1984.
Trace Substances in Environmental Health. Ed. Hemphill, D.D. Univ. Mo. Columbia. 1972-1986
The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood. Needleman, H., et al: NEJM 1990; 322(2):83-88.
Analysis of Zinc levels In Hair for the Diagnosis of Zinc Deficiency in Man. Strain, W.H., et. al. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 1966.
Determination of Aluminum, Copper, and Zinc in Human Hair. Stevens, B.J. Atomic Spectroscopy. 1983.
The use of Hair as a Biopsy Material for Trace Elements in the Body. Katz, S.A. Am. Lab. 1979.
Hair Trace Element Levels and Environmental Exposure. Hammer, D.I., et. Al. Am. J. Epid. 1971.
Hair Chromium Concentration of Human Newborn and Changes During Infancy. Hambridge, K.M., Baum, J.D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1972.
Trace Element Nutriture and Metabolism Through Head Hair Analysis. Strain, W.H., et al. Trace Substances in Environmental Health. Ed. Hemphill, D.D. Univ. Mo., Columbia. 1974
Lead in Hair in Children with Chronic Lead Poisoning. Kopito, L., et al. New Eng. J. Med. 1967.
Chronic Plumbism in Children: Diagnosed by Hair Analysis. Kopito, L., et al. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1968.
Magnesium Content of Hair in Alopecia Areata Atopica. Cotton, D., et al. Dermatologica. 1976.
A case-control study on selenium, zinc, and copper in plasma and hair of subjects affected by breast and lung cancer. Piccinini, L.; et al: Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1996;51:23-27.
Hair Manganese Concentrations in Newborns and Their Mothers. Saner, G., et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1985.
Elevated Hair Copper Levels in Idiopathic Scoliosis. Pratt, W., Phippen, W. Spine. 1980.
Low levels of Zinc in Hair, Anorexia, Poor Growth, and Hypogeusia in Children. Hambridge, K.M., et al. Peadiatr. Res. 1972.
Hair Mineral Levels and their Correlation with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance. Tamari, G.M., Rona, Z. Cytobiological Rev. 1985.
Hair and Urine Chromium Content in 30 Hospitalized Female Psychogeriatric Patients and Mentally Healthy Controls. Vobecky, J., et al. Nur. Rep. Intl. 1980.
Hair as an Indicator of Excessive Aluminum Exposure. Yokel, R.A. Clin. Chem. 1982.
Hair trace elements in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Oishi M, et al: Trace Elem. Med. 1990;7(4):182-85.
Comparison of Concentrations of Some Trace, Bulk and Toxic Metals in the Hair of Normal and Dyslexic Children. Capel, I.D., et al. Clin. Chem. 1981.
Hair Zinc Concentrations in Diabetic Children. Amodor, M., et al. Lancet. 1975.
Blood pressure in Young Adults as Associated with Dietary Habits, Body Conformation, and Hair Element Concentrations. Medeiros, D.M., et al. Nutr. Res. 1982.
Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium in Hair from Neonates with Cystic Fibrosis and in Amniotic Fluid from Mothers of such Children. Kopito, L., et al. Pediatrics. 1972.
Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Mercury, and Zinc Concentrations in the Hair of Individuals Living in the United States. Interface. 1973.
Hair Analysis for the Observation of Magnesium Deficiency or Excess. Strain, W. Magnesium in Health and Disease. Spectrum Pub. 1980.
Trace Elements in Scalp-Hair of Persons with Multiple Sclerosis. Ryann, D., et al. Clin. Chem. 1980.
Concentration of Chromium in the Hair of Normal Children and Children with Juvenile Diabetes Mellitus. Hambridge, K.M., et al. Diabetes. 1968.
Interrelationships of Blood and Hair Mercury Concentrations in a North American Population Exposed to Methylmercury. Phelps, R.W., et al. Arch. Environ. Hlth. 1980.
Measurement of Mercury in Human Hair. Giovanoli-Jakubczak, T., et al. Arch. Environ. Hlth. 1974.
On Nickel Contents in Urine and Hair in a Case of Exposure to Nickel Carbonyl. Hagedom-Gotz, H. et al. Arch. Tox. 1977. Hair Chromium Concentration and Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease. Cote. M., et al. Chromium in Nutrition and Metabolism. Eds. Shapcott, D., Hubert, J. Elservier Press. 1979.
Arsenic Concentration in Drinking Water, Hair, Nails, Urine, Skin-Scale and Liver Tissue of Affected People. Chatergee, D.D., et al. Analyst. 1995.
Arsenic Levels in Hair of Workers in a Semiconductor Facility. De Peyster, A., et al. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. Vol. 56. 1995.
Studies on the Concentrations of Arsenic, Selenium, Copper, Zinc and Iron in the Hair of Blackfoot Disease Patients in Different Clinical Stages. Wang, C.T., et al. Eur. J. Clin. Biochem. 1994.
Mapping technique based on elemental hair composition and data. Zhuk, L., et al: Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1990;26-27:307-320.
Hair Chromium Content of Women with Gestational Diabetes Compared with Nondiabetic Women. Aharoni, A.., et al. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1992.
Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc Concentrations in Human Scalp and Pubic Hair. Wilhelm, M., et al. Sci.Tot. Environ. 1990.
Concentration of Magnesium in Hair of Inhabitants of Down-Town Krakow, The Protective Zone of Steel-Mill “Hutaim Sendzimira” and Tokarania Village. Solarska, K., et al. Przel Lek. 1995.
Effects of Long-Term Anticonvulsants Therapy on Copper, Zinc, and Magnesium in Hair and Serum of Epileptics. Suzuki, t., et al. J. Biol. Psychiatry. 1992.
Hair zinc and copper concentrations and zinc:copper ratios in pediatric malignancies and healthy children from southeastern Turkey. Donma, M., et al: Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1993;36:51-63.
Metals in Hair as Biological Indices for Exposure. Foo, S.C., et al. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Hlth. 1993.
Mercury Levels in Hair from People Eating Large Quantities of Swedish Freshwater Fish. Okarsson, A., et al. Food Addit. Contam. 1990.
Mercury in human hair due to environment and diet: a review. Airey, D. Env Health Perspectives 1983;52:303-316.
Use of Hair Analysis for Evaluating Mercury Intoxication of the Human Body. Katz, S.A., Katz, R.B. J. Appl. Toxicol. 1992.
Platinum in the Human Diet, Blood, Hair and Excreta. Vaughan, G.T., Florence, T.M. Sci. Tot. Environ. 1992.
Determination of Hair Trace Elements in Childhood Celiac Disease and in Cystic Fibrosis. Varkonyi, A., et al. Acta. Ped. 1992.
Study of Correlation of Selenium Content in Human Hair and Internal Organs by INAA. Cheng, Y.D., et al. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1990.
A case-control study on selenium, zinc, and copper in plasma and hair of subjects affected by breast and lung cancer. Piccinini, L.; et al: Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1996;51:23-27.
Emission Spectrophotometric Analysis of Titanium, Aluminum, and Vanadium Levels in the Blood, Urine, and Hair of Patients with Total Hip Replacement. Trinchi, V., et al. J. Orthop. Traumatol. 1992.
Hair Zinc and Copper Concentrations and Zinc: Copper Ratios in Pediatric Malignancies and Healthy Children from Southeastern Turkey. Donma, M.M., et al. Biol. Trace Elem.Res. 1993
Hair Zinc and Dietary Zinc Intake During Pregnancy and Puerperium. Carbone, P., et al. J. Obstet. Gyn. Reprod. Biol. 1992.
Relationship Between Zinc in Serum and Hair and some Hormones During Sexual Maturation in Humans. Vivoli, G., et al. Sci. Tot. Environ. 1990.
Trace Elements in the Hair of Healthy and Malnourished Children. Weber, C.W., et al. J. Trop. Pediatr. 1990.
Selenium levels in new growth hair and in whole blood during ingestion of a selenium supplement for 6 weeks. Gallagher, M., et al: Nutr. Res. 1984;4:577-82.
Study on the Relation of Selenium, Manganese, Iron, Strontium, Lead, Zinc, Copper, and Calcium to Liver Cancer Mortality from Analysis of Scalp Hair. Wang, Y.X., et al. Sci. Tot. Environ. 1990.
Trace Elements in Hair as Related to Exposure in Metropolitan New York. Creason, J.P., et al. Clin. Chem. 1975.
Analysis Of Copper And Lead In Hair Using The Nuclear Microscope; Results From Normal Subjects, and Patients With Wilson`s Disease and Lead Poisoning. Watt, F., et al. Analyst Vol.120, 1995
Arsenic levels in human blood, urine, and hair in response to exposure via drinking water. Valentine, J., et al: Env. Res. 1979; 20:24-32.
Monitoring of Cadmium, Copper, and Lead and Zinc Status in Young Children Using toenail: Comparison with Scalp Hair. Wilhelm, M., et al: Sci.Tot.Environ. Vol.103, 1991.
Traceelements in Full-Term Neonate Hair. Moro, R. et al: J. TraceElem. Electrolytes Health Dis. Vol.6, 1992.
Effects of low levels of cadmium and lead on cognitive functioning in children. Thatcher, R., et al: Arch. Environ. Health 1982;37(3):159-66.
Coronary Atherosclerosis and Chemical Traceelements in the Hair. A Canonical Correlation Study of Autopsy Subjects, Using and Atherometric System and the X-ray Flurorescence Analysis. Fernandez-Britto, J.E., et al: Zentralbl Pathol. Vol.139, 1993.
Hair Analysis of Spastic Children in Hong Kong. Man, C.K., et al: Sci.Tot.Environ. Vol.191, 1996.
Impact of Reduction of Lead in Gasoline on the Blood and Hair Lead Levels in the Population of Tarragona Province, Spain, 1990-1995. Schuhmacher, M., et al: Sci.Tot.Environ. Vol.184, 1996.
Hair Lead Levels Related to Children`s Classroom Attention-Deficit Behavior. Tuthill, R.W. Arch. Environ. Health. Vol.51, 1996.
References – Are You Healthy? (return to What is Health)
- 62.1% of all bankruptcies have a medical cause.
- Most medical debtors were well educated and middle class; three quarters had health insurance.
- The share of bankruptcies attributable to medical problems rose by 50% between 2001 and 2007.
Source: The American Journal of Medicine (2009) pnhp.org/new bankruptcy study/Bankruptcy-2009.pdf
“Medical expenses are a significant contributing factor in the filing of bankruptcy cases in the United States, and the number of bankruptcies attributed to medical debt is increasing.”
Medical Debt, Medical Bankruptcy and the Impact on Patients, September 2012, National Patient Advocate Foundation
“Monitoring the health to disease continuum with global metabolic profiling and systems biology.”
Schnackenberg LK, Beger RD. Pharmacogenomics. 2006 Oct;7(7):1077-86. Division of Systems Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration
“Physicians seem to be increasingly focused on treatment instead of prevention. We use too many new therapies, drugs, and procedures of uncertain efficacy. Obesity and unhealthy lifestyles are increasingly common.”
Thoughts on a new health care paradigm. Terence M Davidson, Professor of Surgery, Associate Dean West, J Med. 2001 December; 175(6): 429–430. PMCID: PMC1275985
“Throughout the continuum of medical and scientific history, repeated evidence has confirmed that the main etiological determinants of disease are nutritional deficiency, toxicant exposures, genetic predisposition, infectious agents, and psychological dysfunction. …it is evident that a reevaluation of conventional wisdom on the current construct of disease origins should be considered and that new knowledge should receive expeditious translation into clinical strategies for disease management and health promotion.”
What’s out there making us sick? Genuis SJ. J Environ Public Health. 2012;2012:605137. doi: 10.1155/2012/605137. Epub 2011 Oct 24. Review.
“As new chemicals enter commerce, the number of chemicals on the Inventory changes. Today more than 84,000 chemical substances are on the Inventory.”
The initial reporting period was January to May of 1978, for chemical substances that had been in commerce since January of 1975. The initial TSCA Inventory, published in 1979, was followed by a second version in 1982, which included approximately 62,000 chemical substances.
“Chemicals are part of life in the 21st century and are found in nearly everything we use. Some 70,000 different chemicals are available on the market today and around 1,500 new ones are introduced every year. Estimates indicate that at least 30,000 chemicals on the market have never been subject to comprehensive testing on any risks to humans, and that appropriate testing of risks during their developmental stages was not included in standard testing. Furthermore, there is little information on which population groups are being exposed to which chemicals, at what doses, and what the exposure means to health. “
Roberto Bertollini & Marc Danzon Bulletin of the World Health Organization, A dialogue on chemicals and children. http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/82/11/editorial31104html/en/
“Using the definitions above, each category was enumerated using data first from the FDA, then from regulatory agencies outside the US. In this step, inclusion and completeness was the goal, with redundancy to be eliminated later (see following section). Lists of drug names approved for human use were obtained from the FDA official publications including the Orange Book, the National Drug Code (NDC), the Drugs@FDA webpage, the Over-the-Counter (OTC) listings from the Office of Nonprescription Products, and its Substance Registration System’s Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII). After assigning structures and Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers to these names wherever applicable and removing duplicate entries, we found that FDA has over 100,000 Drug Products registered. These Drug Products have in them over 10,000 Drugs. However, this latter number, though formally correct, is misleading since the majority of these 10,000 are different brands of the same API, different APIs of the same ME, or chemically undefined substances (e.g. allergenic extracts)”
Ruili Huang, Noel Southall, Yuhong Wang, Adam Yasgar, Paul Shinn, Ajit Jadhav, Dac-Trung Nguyen, and Christopher P. Austin The NCGC Pharmaceutical Collection: A comprehensive resource of clinically approved drugs enabling repurposing and chemical genomics Sci Transl Med. 2011 April 27; 3(80): 80ps16. doi: 10.1126/ scitranslmed.3001862 PMCID: PMC3098042, NIHMSID: NIHMS289247
“Last year, top fast-food chains including McDonald’s and Burger King announced plans to make kids meals healthier. Nearly a year after those announcements, nutrition experts with the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) evaluated kids meals from these and other fast-food restaurants and found that many are still loaded with fat, cholesterol, and sodium. These “healthy” meals put children at risk for obesity, diabetes, cancer, and other diet-related diseases.”
The Five Worst “Healthy” Fast-Food Kids Meals. A Report by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, June 2012
“Once again, the disparity between sales and population is dramatic: at the top end, approximately 15% of the world’s population bought almost 90% of the world’s medicines; at the bottom end, over one-third of the world’s population bought less than 1% of the world’s pharmaceuticals.”
The World Medicines Situation (2004; 151 pages) http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js6160e/6.html
“Over the last 30 years, the field of biomarkers has greatly expanded as early and specific endpoints for monitoring cellular responses to various disease states and exposures to drugs and chemical agents. They have enjoyed some success as predictors of health outcomes for a number of clinical diseases, but the application to chemical exposure risk assessments has been more limited.”
Biomarkers in toxicology and risk assessment. Fowler BA. EXS. 2012;101:459-70. doi: 10.1007/978-3-7643-8340-4_16.
Environmental outlook. Brussels: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; 2001.
Burden of disease attributable to selected environmental factors and injury among children and adolescents in Europe. Valent F, Little D, Bertollini R, Nemer LE, Barbone F, Tamburlini G. Lancet 2004; 363:2032-9.
Environmental pollutants and disease in American children: estimates of morbidity, mortality and costs for lead poisoning, asthma, cancer and developmental disabilities.Landrigan PJ, Schechter CB, Lipton JM, Fahs MC, Schwartz J. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110:721-8.
Fourth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health “The future for our children”, Budapest, Hungary, 23–25 June 2004. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe; 2004. Available from: www.euro.who.int/budapest2004
References – Antioxidants (return to Antioxidants)
“The trace elements copper, zinc and selenium are linked together in cytosolic defense against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.” Role of copper, zinc, selenium and tellurium in the cellular defense against oxidative and nitrosative stress. J Nutr. 2003 May;133(5 Suppl 1):1448S-51S.
“In the present study, the presence of an association between oxidative stress and trace elements was observed in patients with breast cancer. We suggest that increased oxidative stress in patients with breast cancer may result from changes in the levels of certain trace elements.” Association between oxidative stress and changes of trace elements in patients with breast cancer. Clin Biochem. 1999 Mar;32(2):131-6.
“The elevation of iron and zinc in AD brain has the potential of augmenting neuron degeneration through free radical processes.” Imbalances of trace elements related to oxidative damage in Alzheimer’s disease brain. Neurotoxicology. 1998 Jun;19(3):339-45.
“Trace elements exert a strong influence on immune function. Debilitated humoral and cellular immune responses may impair virus clearance in infected organisms, and favor the generation of virus variants with altered biological properties.” RNA virus evolution, population dynamics, and nutritional status. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1997 Jan;56(1):23-30.
“The present review focuses on biological activity of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and trace elements and discusses the pathophysiological implications of trace elements for hypertension.” [Trace elements and blood pressure regulation]. Nihon Rinsho. 1996 Jan;54(1):106-10.
“Multivitamin mixture with trace elements significantly protects diabetic patients and the control group against injurous actions of free radicals. That is confirmed by the decrease of plasmatic malondialdehyde and uric acid and by the increase of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes.“ [Administration of multivitamin combinations and trace elements in diabetes]. Cas Lek Cesk. 1995 Feb 1;134(3):80-3.
“Plasma zinc, iron, copper, and selenium and selected blood proteins were measured in 66 men before (BHW) and after (AHW) a 5-d period of sustained physical and psychological stress called Hell Week. Hell Week induced changes characteristic of an acute-phase response in physically active men.” Biochemical indices of selected trace minerals in men: effect of stress. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1):126-31.
“Both glycation and oxidative processes are involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy, and changes in the concentration of Cd, Se, Cr, Zn, and Cu have some impact on the disease progression.” Effects of trace elements on albumin and lipoprotein glycation in diabetic retinopathy. Saudi Med J. 2009 Oct;30(10):1263-71.
References – Chemical Toxins (return to Chemical Toxins)
“Of the 84,000 chemicals on the market today — many of which are in objects that people come into contact with every day — only about 1 percent of them have been studied for safety”, Sen. Frank Lautenberg said Tuesday.
“Everything from our cars to the cell phones we all have in our pockets are made with chemicals,” Jackson said at the hearing. “A child born in America today will grow up exposed to more chemicals than any other generation in our history.”
EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson called the issue one of her main priorities.
“Everyday chemicals may be harming kids”, panel told.
By the CNN Wire Staff October 26, 2010 1:21 p.m. EDT www.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/10/26/senate.toxic…/index.html
“Children are not only being born into a chemically toxic world, they are exposed to these toxins throughout their gestational development. They are exposed to hundreds of toxic compounds via cord blood and release many of them in the meconium. These toxins include numerous neuro-, immuno-, and endocrine-toxic compounds present during the critical stages of hormonal, immunological, and neurological development. Outcome studies have shown that animal and human offspring who are so exposed can not only be born with birth defects, but suffer from lifelong health and behavior problems.”
Crinnion WJ. Maternal levels of xenobiotics that affect fetal development and childhood health. Altern Med Rev. 2009 Sep;14(3):212-22.
“The pervasiveness of chemicals in the environment with estrogenic activity and other biological functions recommends the development of new approaches to monitor and study them. Chemicals can be screened for activity in vitro using a panel of human or animal cells that have been transfected with a specific receptor and reporter gene; for example, the estrogen receptor.”
J A McLachlan, Functional toxicology: a new approach to detect biologically active xenobiotics. Environ Health Perspect. 1993 October; 101(5): 386–387. PMCID: PMC1519847 Research Article
Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of many toxic elements from the human body. Biomonitoring for toxic elements through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of such toxicants.
Genuis SJ, Birkholz D, Rodushkin I, Beesoon S. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) study: monitoring and elimination of bioaccumulated toxic elements. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011 Aug;61(2):344-57. doi: 10.1007/s00244-010-9611-5. Epub 2010 Nov 6.
Inadequate dietary iron intake, chronic and acute inflammatory conditions, and obesity are each associated with alterations in iron homeostasis. Tight regulation of iron is necessary because iron is highly toxic and humanbeings can only excrete small amounts through sweat, skin and enterocyte sloughing, and fecal and menstrual blood loss.
Tussing-Humphreys L, Pusatcioglu C, Nemeth E, Braunschweig C. Rethinking iron regulation and assessment in iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, and obesity: introducing hepcidin. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Mar;112(3):391-400. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.08.038. Epub 2012 Mar 1.
Korach KS, Sarver P, Chae K, McLachlan JA, McKinney JD. Estrogen receptor-binding activity of polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls: conformationally restricted structural probes. Mol Pharmacol.1988 Jan;33(1):120–126. [PubMed]
Soto AM, Justicia H, Wray JW, Sonnenschein C. p-Nonyl-phenol: an estrogenic xenobiotic released from “modified” polystyrene. Environ Health Perspect. 1991 May;92:167–173.[PMC free article] [PubMed]
Krishnan AV, Stathis P, Permuth SF, Tokes L, Feldman D. Bisphenol-A: an estrogenic substance is released from polycarbonate flasks during autoclaving. Endocrinology. 1993 Jun;132(6):2279–2286. [PubMed]
Newbold RR, Bullock BC, McLachlan JA. Müllerian remnants of male mice exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 1987;7(4):377–389. [PubMed]
Wolff MS, Toniolo PG, Lee EW, Rivera M, Dubin N. Blood levels of organochlorine residues and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993 Apr 21;85(8):648–652. [PubMed]
Carlsen E, Giwercman A, Keiding N, Skakkebaek NE. Evidence for decreasing quality of semen during past 50 years. BMJ. 1992 Sep 12;305(6854):609–613. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
Sharpe RM, Skakkebaek NE. Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? Lancet. 1993 May 29;341(8857):1392–1395. [PubMed]
References – Family Planning (return to Family Planning)
“As parents, we have to understand better that our responsibilities to our children are not only of a social, economical, or educational nature, but that our own biological status can contribute to the fate of our children, and this effect can be long-lasting,” said Mihai Niculescu, M.D., Ph.D., study author from Nutrition Research Institute at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, in Chapel Hill, N.C. “
“The Developmental origins of human adult diseases (DOHAD) has initially emphasised the effects of maternal undernutrition during fetal development on long-term outcomes in the adult offspring, including effects on fertility. More recent work has provided evidence that preconceptional nutritional conditions and periconceptional environment also play a major role in programming the offspring susceptibility to disease. Epigenetic mechanisms, which may be mediated by macro- and micro-nutriments, endocrine status and oxidative stress, are the focus of the mechanistic studies aimed at understanding the processes involved in these effects.”
Chavatte-Palmer P, Al Gubory K, Picone O, Heyman Y. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2008 Sep;36(9):920-9. Epub 2008 Aug 9 Review. French.
“Here, we discuss epigenetics as a mediator of disease risk in response to nutritional cues. The potential for maternal nutrition to heritably alter epigenetic states may have implications for population health and adaptive evolution.”
Li CC, Maloney CA, Cropley JE, Suter CM. Epigenomics. 2010 Aug;2(4):539-49. Review.
“The negative impact on sperm motility, morphology and concentration of such chemical elements as Al, Cr, Cd, Pb or Fe was observed, while positive influence was noticed for Zn, Mg, and Ca.”
Influence of chemical elements on mammalian spermatozoa. Marzec-Wróblewska U1, Kamiński P, Lakota P., Folia Biol (Praha). 2012;58(1):7-15.
“Recent reports on the role of trace elements in human reproductive potential were summarized. Zn has been known as an important element in male sexual function, and works as key element in several seminal reactions. Se, Fe, and Cu are also essential for male fertility. Intracellular Ca play an important role in many reactions such as sperm motility, acrosome reaction, capacitation, etc. Our data on 13 elements in semen samples from 110 male patients of infertile couples were also described; element concentrations were Na > P, K > Ca > Zn > Mg > Fe > Cu > Se >> Sn, Ni, Co, Cd,…”
[Role of essential trace elements on sexual function and its disorder]. Shinohara A1, Watanabe H., Nihon Rinsho. 1996 Jan;54(1):155-61.
“In conclusion, poor Zn nutrition may be an important risk factor for low quality of sperm and idiopathic male infertility.”
Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Colagar AH1, Marzony ET, Chaichi MJ., Nutr Res. 2009 Feb;29(2):82-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.11.007.
“Male factor infertility or subfertility is responsible for up to 50% of infertility cases. A considerable body of recent studies indicates that lifestyle as well as environmental and psychological factors can negatively affect male fertility, more than previously thought. These negative effects have been shown in many cases to be reversible.”
Can Male Fertility Be Improved Prior to Assisted Reproduction through The Control of Uncommonly Considered Factors? Campagne DM., Int J Fertil Steril. 2013 Jan;6(4):214-223. Epub 2013 Mar 3.
“These results add to the evidence that vitamin D deficiency may be an important risk factor for autism and suggest that pregnant women and autistic individuals raise their serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations above 30 ng/ml.”
Autism prevalence in the United States with respect to solar UV-B doses: An ecological study., Grant WB, Cannell JJ., Dermatoendocrinol. 2013 Jan 1;5(1):159-64. doi: 10.4161/derm.22942.
“Mothers of children with autism were less likely than those of typically developing children to report having taken prenatal vitamins during the 3 months before pregnancy or the first month of pregnancy.”
Prenatal vitamins, one-carbon metabolism gene variants, and risk for autism. Schmidt RJ, Hansen RL, Hartiala J, Allayee H, Schmidt LC, Tancredi DJ, Tassone F, Hertz-Picciotto I. Epidemiology. 2011 Jul;22(4):476-85. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e31821d0e30.
“Recent advances indicate that epigenetic variation is an important influence on interactions between nutrients and the genome, which modify disease risk. In contrast to the interaction between nutrition and gene polymorphisms, epigenetic variation can be modified by nutritional interventions to improve health outcomes.”
Epigenetics: are there implications for personalised nutrition? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012 Sep;15(5):442-7. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e3283567dd2. Burdge GC, Hoile SP, Lillycrop KA. Academic Unit of Human Development and Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Tremona Road, Southampton, UK.
“Low maternal folate status during early pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of emotional problems in the offspring.”
Maternal folate status in early pregnancy and child emotional and behavioral problems: the Generation R Study. Steenweg-de Graaff J, Roza SJ, Steegers EA, Hofman A, Verhulst FC, Jaddoe VW, Tiemeier H. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jun;95(6):1413-21. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.030791. Epub 2012 May 9.
“A wealth of epidemiological evidence has provided a convincing link between a sub-optimal gestational environment and an increased propensity to develop adult onset metabolic disease.”
Environmental and genetical aspects of the link between pregnancy, birth size, and type 2 diabetes. Vignini A, Raffaelli F, Cester A, Iannilli A, Cherubini V, Mazzanti L, Nanetti L. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2012 May;8(3):155-61. Review.
“Our data may indicate the presence of an additional mechanism that may explain the heightened risk of obesity for infants of overweight and excessive weight gain mothers.”
Maternal weight and excessive weight gain during pregnancy modify the immunomodulatory potential of breast milk.
Collado MC, Laitinen K, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Pediatr Res. 2012 Jul;72(1):77-85. doi: 10.1038/pr.2012.42. Epub 2012 Mar 27.
“Understanding the role of micronutrients during the development of fetus will provide insights into the probable underlying / associated mechanisms in the metabolic pathways of endocrine related complications.”
“Maternal micronutrient restriction programs the body adiposity, adipocyte function and lipid metabolism in offspring: a review.” Rao KR, Padmavathi IJ, Raghunath M. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2012 Jun;13(2):103-8. doi: 10.1007/s11154-012-9211-y. Review.
“The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study (PMNS) showed that the Indian babies were thin but fat (more adipose) compared to European babies, and that maternal intake of micronutrient-rich foods was a strong determinant of fetal size.”
Fetal programming: maternal nutrition and role of one-carbon metabolism. Yajnik CS, Deshmukh US. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2012 Jun;13(2):121-7. doi: 10.1007/s11154-012-9214-8. Review.
“Significant changes in the epigenome in cord blood DNA samples were further explored in a subset of offspring at 9 months. Gender-specific changes related to periconceptional nutritional supplementation were identified in cord blood DNA samples, some of which showed persistent changes in infant blood DNA samples.”
Periconceptional maternal micronutrient supplementation is associated with widespread gender related changes in the epigenome: a study of a unique resource in the Gambia. Khulan B, Cooper WN, Skinner BM, Bauer J, Owens S, Prentice AM, Belteki G, Constancia M, Dunger D, Affara NA. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 May 1;21(9):2086-101. doi: 10.1093/hmg/dds026. Epub 2012 Feb 3.
“Compelling evidences suggest that both over- and undernutrition may modify the intrauterine environment of the conceptus and may alter the expression of its genome, predisposing to disease in the adult life.”
Genetic basis, nutritional challenges and adaptive responses in the prenatal origin of obesity and type-2 diabetes. Gonzalez-Bulnes A, Ovilo C. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2012 Mar;8(2):144-54. Review.
“Undernutrition during pregnancy is implicated in the programming of offspring for the development of obesity and diabetes. In conclusion, twinning and periconceptional undernutrition are associated with epigenetic changes in fetal hypothalamic POMC and GR genes, potentially resulting in altered energy balance regulation in the offspring.”
Epigenetic changes in fetal hypothalamic energy regulating pathways are associated with maternal undernutrition and twinning. Begum G, Stevens A, Smith EB, Connor K, Challis JR, Bloomfield F, White A. FASEB J. 2012 Apr;26(4):1694-703. doi: 10.1096/fj.11-198762. Epub 2012 Jan 5.
“Nutrition during early mammalian development permanently influences health of the adult, including increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. We propose that increased miR-483-3p expression in vivo, programmed by early-life nutrition, limits storage of lipids in adipose tissue, causing lipotoxicity and insulin resistance and thus increasing susceptibility to metabolic disease.”
Programming of adipose tissue miR-483-3p and GDF-3 expression by maternal diet in type 2 diabetes. Ferland-McCollough D, Fernandez-Twinn DS, Cannell IG, David H, Warner M, Vaag AA, Bork-Jensen J, Brøns C, Gant TW, Willis AE, Siddle K, Bushell M, Ozanne SE. Cell Death Differ. 2012 Jun;19(6):1003-12. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2011.183. Epub 2012 Jan 6.
“The fact that nongenetic factors such as nutrition in pregnancy can mimic and/or interact with imprinted gene expression suggests that the theory might even be able to explain the notable effect of maternal starvation on the risk of PSD – not to mention the ‘autism epidemic’ of modern affluent societies.”
The imprinted brain: how genes set the balance between autism and psychosis. Badcock C. Epigenomics. 2011 Jun;3(3):345-59. doi: 10.2217/epi.11.19.
“The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD.”
Epigenetic mechanisms elicited by nutrition in early life. Canani RB, Costanzo MD, Leone L, Bedogni G, Brambilla P, Cianfarani S, Nobili V, Pietrobelli A, Agostoni C. Nutr Res Rev. 2011 Dec;24(2):198-205. doi: 10.1017/S0954422411000102. Epub 2011 Oct 18. Review.
“There is substantial evidence from animal and man demonstrating that both transient and more long-term epigenetic mechanisms have a role in the regulation of the molecular events governing adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis. Intrauterine exposure such as poor maternal nutrition has consistently been demonstrated to contribute to a particular epigenotype and thereby developmental metabolic priming of the exposed offspring in animal and man.”
Epigenetic regulation in obesity. Lavebratt C, Almgren M, Ekström TJ. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Jun;36(6):757-65. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2011.178. Epub 2011 Sep 13. Review.
“Within tissues and organs that control metabolic homeostasis (eg, hypothalamus, adipose tissue, stomach, skeletal muscle, and heart), a range of phenotypes can be induced by sustained changes in maternal diet via modulation of genes that control DNA methylation and by histone acetylation, which suggests epigenetic programming.”
The early programming of metabolic health: is epigenetic setting the missing link? Sebert S, Sharkey D, Budge H, Symonds ME. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6 Suppl):1953S-1958S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.001040. Epub 2011 May 4.
“Studies of identical twins, individuals who were in utero during periods of famine, and animal models have provided strong evidence that the early environment, including early nutrition, plays an important role in mediating these relations. The concept of early life programming is therefore widely accepted.”
Mechanisms of early life programming: current knowledge and future directions. Tarry-Adkins JL, Ozanne SE. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6 Suppl):1765S-1771S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.000620. Epub 2011 May 4.
“Maternal gestational glucose concentration was significantly associated with offspring insulin sensitivity and β-cell response independent of adiposity. These results suggest that maternal glucose may program the fetus both at the pancreas and at the level of insulin target tissues such as skeletal muscle and liver.”
Higher maternal gestational glucose concentration is associated with lower offspring insulin sensitivity and altered beta-cell function. Bush NC, Chandler-Laney PC, Rouse DJ, Granger WM, Oster RA, Gower BA. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 May;96(5):E803-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-2902. Epub 2011 Feb 23.
“These results suggest, that maternal and dietary Se-induced oxidative stress can modulate the mRNA and protein expression of the cell cycle related genes (p34(cdc2) and CyclinB1) in the testis of their offspring. In addition, Se deficiency and Se excess could prevent the completion of the cell cycle.”
Effects of maternal and dietary selenium (Se-enriched yeast) on the expression of p34(cdc2) and CyclinB1 of germ cells of their offspring in goats. Ren Y, Wang Q, Shi L, Yue W, Zhang C, Lei F. Anim Reprod Sci. 2011 Feb;123(3-4):187-91. doi: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2011.01.002. Epub 2011 Jan 14.
“People with a SNPs in MTHFD1 (a gene of folate metabolism that controls the use of folate as a methyl donor) are more likely to develop organ dysfunction when deprived of choline; their dietary requirement is increased because of increased need for choline as a methyl donor.”
Nutritional genomics: defining the dietary requirement and effects of choline. Zeisel SH. J Nutr. 2011 Mar;141(3):531-4. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.130369. Epub 2011 Jan 26. Review.
“Under- and over-nutrition during pregnancy has been linked to the later development of diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Epigenetic modifications may be one mechanism by which exposure to an altered intrauterine milieu or metabolic perturbation may influence the phenotype of the organism much later in life.”
Epigenetics and maternal nutrition: nature v. nurture. Simmons R. Proc Nutr Soc. 2011 Feb;70(1):73-81. doi: 10.1017/S0029665110003988. Epub 2010 Nov 29. Review.
“In conclusion, excess hepatic lipid accumulation with juvenile obesity is promoted by suboptimal nutrition coincident with early development of the fetal liver.”
Suboptimal maternal nutrition, during early fetal liver development, promotes lipid accumulation in the liver of obese offspring. Hyatt MA, Gardner DS, Sebert S, Wilson V, Davidson N, Nigmatullina Y, Chan LL, Budge H, Symonds ME. Reproduction. 2011 Jan;141(1):119-26. doi: 10.1530/REP-10-0325. Epub 2010 Nov 2
“’Fetal programming’ is regulated by adaptations occurring in uterus including maternal nutrition, placental blood supply, and epigenetic changes. Low birth weight predisposes to hypertension and renal insufficiency. Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract, adverse postnatal events, wrong nutritional habits may produce renal damage that will become clinically relevant in adulthood.”
Early origin of adult renal disease. Maringhini S, Corrado C, Maringhini G, Cusumano R, Azzolina V, Leone F. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010 Oct;23 Suppl 3:84-6. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2010.510245. Review.
“Only recently, it has been observed that the environmental conditions and daily diet can affect transgenerational gene expression via “reversible” heritable epigenetic mechanisms.”
Nature or nurture: let food be your epigenetic medicine in chronic inflammatory disorders. Szarc vel Szic K, Ndlovu MN, Haegeman G, Vanden Berghe W. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Dec 15;80(12):1816-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.07.029. Epub 2010 Aug 3. Review.
“Here, we discuss epigenetics as a mediator of disease risk in response to nutritional cues. The potential for maternal nutrition to heritably alter epigenetic states may have implications for population health and adaptive evolution.”
Epigenetic programming by maternal nutrition: shaping future generations. Li CC, Maloney CA, Cropley JE, Suter CM. Epigenomics. 2010 Aug;2(4):539-49. doi: 10.2217/epi.10.33. Review.
“High circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations in women during pregnancy are associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis in their offspring.”
Kiefte-de Jong JC, Timmermans S, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Tiemeier H, Steegers EA, de Jongste JC, Moll HA. J Nutr. 2012 Apr;142(4):731-8. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.154948. Epub 2012 Mar 7.
“Nutrients can reverse or change epigenetic phenomena such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, thereby modifying the expression of critical genes associated with physiologic and pathologic processes, including embryonic development, aging, and carcinogenesis.”
Epigenetics: A New Bridge between Nutrition and Health Sang-Woon Choi and Simonetta Friso doi: 10.3945/an.110.1004 Adv Nutr November 2010, Adv Nutr vol. 1: 8-16, 2010
Dolinoy, D. C., et al. Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation in early development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, 13056–13061 (2007) doi:10.1073/pnas.0703739104
Duhl, D. M., et al. Neomorphic agouti mutations in obese yellow mice. Nature Genetics 8, 59–65 (1994) doi:10.1038/ng0994-59
Lu, D., et al. Agouti protein is an antagonist of the melanocyte-stimulating-hormone receptor. Nature 371, 799–802 (1994) doi:10.1038/371799a0
Epigenetics: Mother’s Nutrition — Before Pregnancy — May Alter Function of Her Children’s Genes, Sep. 20, 2012 Science Daily, Science News
References – Healthy Weight Management (return to Healthy Weight Management)
“The authors conclude that levels of overweight and obesity are multifactorial and should be addressed with more holistic actions.”
Nutritional status and socio-ecological factors associated with overweight/obesity at a rural-serving US-Mexico border university. Rural Remote Health. 2012 Oct;12 (4):2228.
“Diet, exercise and behavior modifications remain the current cornerstones of obesity treatment.”
Obesity management: what brings success? Lagerros YT, Rössner S. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2013 Jan;6(1):77-88. doi: 10.1177/1756283X12459413.
“Nutrition is the cornerstone of health; survival depends on acquiring essential nutrients, and dietary components can both prevent and promote disease.”
Analytical metabolomics: nutritional opportunities for personalized health. McNiven EM, German JB, Slupsky CM. J Nutr Biochem. 2011 Nov;22(11):995-1002. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.05.016. Review.
“The simplistic advice to reduce all fat, or all carbohydrates, has not stood the test of science; strong evidence supports the need to consider fat and carbohydrate quality and different protein sources.” Current Evidence on Healthy Eating. Willett WC, Stampfer MJ. Annu Rev Public Health. 2013 Jan 7.
“This study showed deficiencies in several essential nutrients among medical students, and the prevalence of overweight status, obesity, and inactivity were relatively high.” Nutritional and health status of medical students at a university in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Allam AR, Taha IM, Al-Nozha OM, Sultan IE. Saudi Med J. 2012 Dec;33(12):1296-303.
“The present findings show that oxidative stress returned 2 years after RYGB. Concentrations of vitamin C, β-carotene, GSH, CAT, and FRAP were decreased, whereas the concentration of TBARS decreased in the first year but increased in the following year, which may be partly explained by the imbalance between antioxidants and pro-oxidants.” Oxidative stress markers in adults 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Dec 20.
“The parent questionnaires reveal that most frequent problem that influenced child nutrition is lack of information about healthy feeding (55%), lack of time for preparation of food (33%), inability to control child’s feeding (36%), financial deficit (4%).” Evaluation of nutritional knowledge of second grade school children and assessment of their dietary intake. Kherkheulidze M, Kavlashvili N, Kandelaki E, Manjavidze T. Georgian Med News. 2012 Nov;(212):58-64.
“The study indicates that the nutritional status of youth should be monitored and that actions should be undertaken to increase their awareness of the principles of a healthy lifestyle.” Self-perceived assessment of nutritional status as a determinant of health-promoting and anti-health-promoting behaviors of adolescent boys. Mikołajczak J, Piotrowska E, Biernat J, Wyka J, Zechałko-Czajkowska A. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2012 Mar-Apr;21(2):225-33.
“Therefore, although nutrient deficiency is a known phenomenon, serious for the sufferer, and curable by taking the isolated nutrient, the effect of isolated nutrients or other chemicals derived from food on chronic disease, when that chemical is not deficient, may not have the same beneficial effect.” Food synergy: the key to a healthy diet. Jacobs DR, Tapsell LC. Proc Nutr Soc. 2013 Jan 14:1-7.
“Meat is a valuable source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B12 as well as other B complex vitamins, zinc, selenium and phosphorus.” Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet. Pereira PM, Vicente AF. Meat Sci. 2013 Mar;93(3):586-92. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.09.018.
“Total BPA was detected in 93 % of this healthy infant population aged 3-15 months who are without known environmental exposure to BPA.” Bisphenol A concentrations in maternal breast milk and infant urine. Mendonca K, Hauser R, Calafat AM, Arbuckle TE, Duty SM. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2012 Dec 5.
“In conclusion, the benefits of bariatric surgery are tempered by the high frequency of nutritional deficiencies that occur, some of which are under-recognized and left untreated and lead to devastating consequences to bone health and to the functioning of the immune, nervous, and muscular systems.”
Mineral Malnutrition Following Bariatric Surgery. Nana Gletsu-Miller, and Breanne N. Wright. Adv Nutr September 2013 Adv Nutr vol. 4: 506-517, 2013 doi: 10.3945/an.113.004341 http://advances.nutrition.org/content/4/5/506.full#fn-2
References – Malnutrition (return to Malnutrition)
“The low dietary intake of protein and sulfur amino acids by a plant-eating population leads to subclinical protein malnutrition, explaining the origin of hyperhomocysteinemia and the increased vulnerability of these vegetarian subjects to cardiovascular diseases.”
Vegetarianism produces subclinical malnutrition, hyperhomocysteinemia and atherogenesis. Ingenbleek Y, McCully KS. Nutrition. 2012 Feb;28:148-53. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2011.04.009. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21872435/
“Obvious or overt malnutrition is diagnosed from characteristic clinical signs. Subclinical malnutrition is revealed only by biochemical changes but is an unstable state which, if untreated, will develop to clinical malnutrition.”
Subclinical and covert malnutrition. Bender AE. Bull Schweiz Akad Med Wiss. 1976 Mar;31(4-6):279-90. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/990570/
“Malnutrition is a major contributor to mortality and is increasingly recognized as a cause of, potentially lifelong, functional disability.”
Malnutrition as an enteric infectious disease with long-term effects on child development. Richard L Guerrant, Reinaldo B Oriá, Sean R Moore, Mônica OB Oriá, and Aldo AM Lima Nutr Rev. 2008 September; 66(9): 487–505. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00082. https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article/66/9/487/1854813?login=false
“Malnutrition is prevalent among patients within certain cancer types.”
Comparison of the prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis in head and neck, gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients by three classification methods Dr. Mary E. Platek, PhD, RD, Mr. Johann V. Popp KPf, Ms. Candi S. Possinger, MS, RD, Dr. Carol A. DeNysschen, PhD, MPH, RD, Ms. Peter Horvath, PhD, and Dr. Jean K. Brown, PhD, RN, FAAN Cancer Nurs. 2011 Sep-Oct; 34(5): 410–416. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0b013e318206b013 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21242767/
“Malnutrition in children with congenital heart defects (CHDs) has been linked to increased morbidity and mortality as indicated by frequent hospitalisation, poor surgical outcomes, persistent impairment of somatic growth and increased death.”
Prevalence, profile and predictors of malnutrition in children with congenital heart defects: a case–control observational study. Christy A N Okoromah, Ekanem N Ekure, Foluso E A Lesi, Wahab O Okunowo, Bolande O Tijani, and Jonathan C Okeiyi, Arch Dis Child. 2011 April 1; 96(4): 354–360. doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.176644 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21242767/
“Activation and sustenance of immune responses during infection requires increased energy consumption. Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is a critical, yet underestimated factor in susceptibility to infection, including the “big three” infectious diseases: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria.”
Malnutrition and Infection: Complex Mechanisms and Global Impacts. Ulrich E Schaible* and Stefan H. E Kaufmann, PLoS Med. 2007 May; 4(5): e115. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040115 https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.0040115
“Infantile malnutrition is known to be associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence.”
Infant Malnutrition Is Associated with Persisting Attention Deficits in Middle Adulthood Janina R. Galler, Cyralene P. Bryce, Miriam L. Zichlin, Garrett Fitzmaurice, G. David Eaglesfield, and Deborah P. Waber J Nutr. 2012 April; 142(4): 788–794. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.145441 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22378333/
“Malnutrition is prevalent in hemodialysis patients and is associated with arterial calcification and the expressions of BMP2 and MGP in calcified radial arteries. Malnutrition may be a new inducer candidate for arterial calcification in hemodialysis patients.”
Malnutrition, a new inducer for arterial calcification in hemodialysis patients? Kun Zhang, Gang Cheng, Xue Cai, Jie Chen, Ying Jiang, Tong Wang, Jingfeng Wang, and Hui Huang corresponding author. J Transl Med. 2013; 11: 66. doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-11-66 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23506394/
“This article aims to provide an overview of the problems that exist in relation to malnutrition and the elderly population.”
Malnutrition and ageing. M Hickson, Postgrad Med J. 2006 January; 82(963): 2–8. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.2005.037564 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16397072/
“Economic improvement over the last 50 years in most of the EMR countries has resulted in greater affluence and to diets that are higher in fats especially saturated fat, cholesterol, and refined carbohydrates and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids and dietary fiber. This nutrition trend has also been accompanied with a sedentary lifestyle and increased level of stress. Consequently, the prevalence of obesity and other noncommunicable diseases has risen steeply.”
Overweight and Obesity in Eastern Mediterranean Region: Prevalence and Possible Causes, Abdulrahman O. Musaiger, J Obes. 2011; 2011: 407237. doi: 10.1155/2011/407237 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21941635/
“The commitment by governments to eradicate hunger and undernutrition is not only an ethical imperative, but also a sound investment that will yield significant economic gains and major social benefits. Investment in nutrition in early life will benefit not only the present generation, but also their children as well as subsequent generations.”
Nutrition economics – food as an ally of public health. I. Lenoir-Wijnkoop, P. J. Jones, R. Uauy, L. Segal, and J. Milner, Br J Nutr. 2013 March 14; 109(5): 777–784. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512005107 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23339933/
“Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer death in affluent countries, notably the United States and Western Europe. Diet would strongly influence CRC risk, and changes in foods habits might reduce up to 70% of this cancer burden.”
Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence. Raphaëlle L. Santarelli, Fabrice Pierre, and Denis E. Corpet. Nutr Cancer. 2008; 60(2): 131–144. doi: 10.1080/01635580701684872 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18444144/
“As the obesity epidemic continues unabated and the popularity of bariatric surgery rises for both extremely obese adults and adolescents, clinicians must be aware of pre-existing nutritional deficiencies in overweight and obese patients. To optimize long-term health after bariatric surgery, it is important to screen for and recognize symptoms of deficiency, prescribe appropriate supplementation and treat common and rare nutritional deficiencies that may emerge both in the short term and long-term post-operatively.”
Nutritional Deficiencies in Obesity and After Bariatric Surgery. Stavra A. Xanthakos, MD, MSa,b, Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009 October; 56(5): 1105–1121. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2009.07.002 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19931066/
“Prealbumin and retinol-binding protein could be used to detect subclinical malnutrition and monitor the effectiveness of dietary treatment.”
RAPID-TURNOVER TRANSPORT PROTEINS: AN INDEX OF SUBCLINICAL PROTEIN-ENERGY MALNUTRITION. P.S. Shetty , R.T. Jung , K.E. Watrasiewicz , W.P.T. James, The Lancet, Volume 314, Issue 8136, Pages 230 – 232, 4 August 1979, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(79)90241-1 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/89336/
Filippatos GS, Anker SD, Kremastinos DT. Pathophysiology of peripheral muscle wasting in cardiac cachexia. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2005;8:249–54.
Brolin RE, Leung M. Survey of vitamin and mineral supplementation after gastric bypass and biliopancreatic diversion for morbid obesity. Obes Surg.
Xanthakos SA, Inge TH. Nutritional consequences of bariatric surgery. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006;9:489–96.
Skroubis G, Anesidis S, Kehagias I, et al. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass versus a variant of biliopancreatic diversion in a non-superobese population: prospective comparison of the efficacy and the incidence of metabolic deficiencies. Obes Surg. 2006;16:488–95.
References – Metabolism (return to Metabolism)
“Pathways of core metabolism can then be separated conveniently into three classes: those that synthesize simple molecules or polymerize them into more complex macromolecules (anabolism); those that degrade molecules to release energy (catabolism); and those that help eliminate the toxic waste produced by the other classes (waste disposal). These pathways are profoundly important. Stated bluntly, they are the sole source of energy that allows life to resist the urge to degrade into entropy.”
Cellular metabolism and disease: what do metabolic outliers teach us? Ralph J. DeBerardinis1 and Craig B. Thompson Cell. 2012 March 16; 148(6): 1132–1144. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.02.032
“Direct in vivo investigation of mammalian metabolism is complicated by the distinct metabolic functions of different tissues.”
Network-based prediction of human tissue-specific metabolism. Shlomi T, Cabili MN, Herrgård MJ, Palsson BØ, Ruppin E. Nat Biotechnol. 2008 Sep;26(9):1003-10. doi: 10.1038/nbt.1487.
“The importance of maintaining proper cellular Mg(2+) content optimal for the activity of various cellular enzymes and metabolic cycles is underscored by the evidence that several diseases are characterized by a loss of Mg(2+) within specific tissues as a result of defective transport, hormonal stimulation, or metabolic impairment.”
Magnesium in health and disease. Romani AM. Met Ions Life Sci. 2013;13:49-79. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_3.
“Two studies showed association between weight regain and recurrence of type 2 diabetes, while the third did not show this association when comparing groups with and without weight regain; 2) metabolic surgery has shown adequate control of T2DM2 in class I obese subjects; however, the non-obese group still need a long-term evaluation, considering the risk of diabetes recurrence when after weight regain.”
Metabolic surgery, weight regain and diabetes re-emergence. Campos JM, Lins DC, Silva LB, Araujo-Junior JG, Zeve JL, Ferraz AA. Arq Bras Cir Dig. 2013;26 Suppl 1:57-62.
“Chronic exposure to environmental stress may play a role in the development of obesity, through hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis.”
Stress-related development of obesity and cortisol in women. Vicennati V, Pasqui F, Cavazza C, Pagotto U, Pasquali R. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Sep;17(9):1678-83. doi: 10.1038/oby.2009.76. Epub 2009 Mar 19.
“Obese men have impaired responses to combined receptor antagonist stimulation, suggesting impaired negative feedback by endogenous cortisol.”
Combined receptor antagonist stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis test identifies impaired negative feedback sensitivity to cortisol in obese men. Mattsson C, Reynolds RM, Simonyte K, Olsson T, Walker BR. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Apr;94(4):1347-52. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-2054. Epub 2009 Jan 13.
“Ammonia is thought to be central in the development of hepatic encephalopathy.”
The effects of hyperammonemia in learning and brain metabolic activity. Arias N, Fidalgo C, Felipo V, Arias JL. Metab Brain Dis. 2014 Jan 12. [Epub ahead of print]
References – Personality (return to Personality)
“Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders.”
Shaheen E Lakhan* and Karen F Vieira Nutritional therapies for mental disorders. Nutrition Journal 2008, 7:2 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-2
“On the basis of accumulating scientific evidence, an effective therapeutic intervention is emerging, namely nutritional supplement/treatment. These may be appropriate for controlling and to some extent, preventing depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders and anxiety disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), autism, and addiction.”
T. S. Sathyanarayana Rao, M. R. Asha, […], and K. S. Jagannatha Understanding nutrition, depression and mental illnesses. Indian J Psychiatry. 2008 Apr-Jun; 50(2): 77–82. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.42391, PMCID: PMC2738337
“It is high time evolutionary approaches to violence are expanded to include the possibilities that violence may be triggered by nutritionally depleted foods, reactive hypoglycemia caused by habitual intake of foods with a high glycemic index (GI), food allergies/intolerances and exposure to new environmental toxins (heavy metals, synthetic poisons).”
Expanding Evolutionary Psychology: toward a Better Understanding of Violence and Aggression. Social Science Information 1 March 2003: 5-50.
“Modifications of the gastrointestinal tract lead to a diminished ability to absorb nutrients, electrolytes, and bile salts, as well as deficiencies in iron, calcium, and other vitamins and minerals.”
Song A, Fernstrom MH. Nutritional and psychological considerations after bariatric surgery. Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, and Fellow of the UPMC Weight Management Center at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburg, PA, Aesthet Surg J. 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2):195-9. doi: 10.1016/j.asj.2008.01.005.
“The Health Research Institute has observed distinctive chemical imbalances in violent subjects and has developed the classification system based on hair chemistry…”
Chemical Imbalences And Criminal Violence, Volume 36, No. 3; American Nutrition Association http://americannutritionassociation.org/newsletter/chemical-imbalences-criminal-violence
“More and more research is showing that supplementing diets with vitamins, minerals, or omega-3 fatty acids can significantly improve the behavior of prisoners, people in mental hospitals, and possibly poorly nourished students”
“Vitamins and Violence: Can micronutrients make students behave, schools safer and test scores better?” The Abell Foundation. http://www.abell.org/sites/default/files/publications/arn810.pdf
“Other studies indicate that deficiencies in potassium, calcium, amino acids, sodium, peptides, and other nutrients can lead to depression, mania, and cognitive problems. Such mental health issues can, in turn, significantly increase the probability of violent behaviour.”
Review of the Roots of Youth Violence. Volume 5, Chapter 1, Literature Reviews, Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services. http://www.children.gov.on.ca/
“There is an equally well-established body of knowledge identifying the connection between behavior and trace minerals. Lead, mercury, iodine, cobalt, iron, copper, manganese, and zinc have all been found to influence brain development and function. Zinc deficiency can affect emotionality, response to stress, impact on planning skills, attention, and inhibition.”
“Food for Thought: The Role of Nutrients in Reducing Aggression, Violence and Criminal Behavior” Accepted for Publication by Corrections Today, Constantine Bitsas. http://www.biobalance.org.au/_downloads/corrections-today-article.pdf
“Correction of nutrient intake, either through a well-balanced diet or low-dose vitamin-mineral supplementation, corrects the low concentrations of vitamins in blood, improves brain function and subsequently lowers institutional violence and antisocial behavior by almost half.”
The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on juvenile delinquency among American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Schoenthaler SJ1, Bier ID. J Altern Complement Med. 2000 Feb;6(1):7-17.
“Antisocial behaviour in prisons, including violence, are reduced by vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids with similar implications for those eating poor diets in the community.”
Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners. Randomised, placebo-controlled trial, C. Bernard Gesch, CQSW; Sean M. Hammond, PhD; Sarah E. Hampson, PhD; Anita Eves, PhD; Martin J. Crowder, PhD, The British Journal of Psychiatry
Diet and Violence, Does diet affect our criminal behavior? Published on May 2, 2011 by Emily Deans, M.D. in Evolutionary Psychiatry (http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/evolutionary-psychiatry/201105/diet-and-violence
Pauling L. Orthomolecular psychiatry. Varying the concentrations of substances normally present in the human body may control mental disease. Science 19 April 1968: Vol. 160 no. 3825 pp. 265-271 DOI: 10.1126/science.160.3825.265
Megavitamin Treatment for Behaviorally Disturbed and Learning Disabled Children. J Learn Disabil 1 December 1979: 678-681.
Food Additives and Hyperactivity: A Comparison of Food Additives in the Diets of Normal and Hyperactive Boys. CLIN PEDIATR 1 October 1975: 956-959.
Virkkunen & Huttunen, 1982;
Benton & Cook, 1991;
Stevens et al, 1995, 1996;
Hamazaki et al, 1996;
Schoenthaler et al, 1997;
Walsh et al, 1997;
Hibbeln et al, 1998;
Bjork et al, 1999;
Golomb et al, 2000).
References – Stress (return to Stress and Nutrition)
“The stress response gives us the strength and speed to ward off or flee from an impending threat. But when it [stress] persists, stress can put us at risk for obesity, heart disease, cancer, and a variety of other illnesses.”
Stress System Malfunction Could Lead to Serious, Life Threatening Disease, National Institutes of Health, September 9, 2002
“The impact of chronic stress on cardiovascular risk has been studied by measuring cortisol in serum and saliva, which are measurements of only 1 time point. These studies yielded inconclusive results. The measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that provides the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol exposure. High hair cortisol levels were associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.”
L. Manenschijn, L. Schaap, N. M. van Schoor, S. van der Pas, G. M. E. E. Peeters, P. Lips, J. W. Koper, and E. F. C. van Rossum High Long-Term Cortisol Levels, Measured in Scalp Hair, Are Associated With a History of Cardiovascular Disease Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism – JCEM 2013 98: 2078-2083; doi:10.1210/jc.2012-3663
“Findings suggest that the association between stress and disease may be moderated in part by unhealthy behaviors.” Relationships between perceived stress and health behaviors in a sample of working adults. Health Psychol. 2003 Nov;22(6):638-42.
“The impact of chronic stress on cardiovascular risk has been studied by measuring cortisol in serum and saliva, which are measurements of only 1 time point. These studies yielded inconclusive results. The measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that provides the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol exposure. High hair cortisol levels were associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.” L. Manenschijn, L. Schaap, N. M. van Schoor, S. van der Pas, G. M. E. E. Peeters, P. Lips, J. W. Koper, and E. F. C. van Rossum High Long-Term Cortisol Levels, Measured in Scalp Hair, Are Associated With a History of Cardiovascular Disease Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism -JCEM 2013 98: 2078-2083; doi:10.1210/jc.2012-3663
“Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called ‘priming’.” Unconscious Fearful Priming Followed by a Psychosocial Stress Test Results in Higher Cortisol Levels. Stress Health. 2012 Oct 22. doi: 10.1002/smi.2469. Hänsel A, von Känel R.Department of General Internal Medicine, Division of Psychosomatic Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland
“These results suggest that remembered dysfunctional parenting is crucially, and in a gender-specific manner, involved in the coping strategy adopted by male and female cancer patients.” Dysfunctional remembered parenting in oncology outpatients affects psychological distress symptoms in a gender-specific manner. Dec;28(5):381-8. doi: 10.1002/smi.2460.Kouzoupis AV, 1st Department of Psychiatry, University of Athens, Medical School, Eginition Hospital, Athens, Greece.
“The three different methods produced an average BG increase of 2.2-fold above basal for high levels of stress over a period of more than a day.” A practical quantification of blood glucose production due to high-level chronic stress. 2012 Oct;28(4):327-32. doi: 10.1002/smi.2415. Mathews EH, Liebenberg L. Centre for Research and Continued Engineering Development, North-West University, Lynnwood Ridge, South Africa.
“In conclusion, social stress had a strong antinatriuretic effect, which is coincident with noradrenergic and corticoadrenal activation and an increase in plasma aldosterone levels. Activation of these factors may promote sodium retention…” Neuroendocrine changes and natriuresis in response to social stress in rats. 2012 Aug;28(3):179-85. doi: 10.1002/smi.1411. Epub 2011 Jul 18. Niebylski A, Boccolini A, Bensi N, Binotti S, Hansen C, Yaciuk R, Gauna H. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físico-Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina
“The results of the present study support the hypothesis that stress may play a role in the development of PD.” The Stressful Life Events and Parkinson’s Disease: A Case-Control Study. 2012 Mar 7. doi: 10.1002/smi.2424. Vlajinac H, Sipetic S, Marinkovic J, Ratkov I, Maksimovic J, Dzoljic E, Kostic V. Institute of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade University, Belgrade, Serbia.
“Epidemiological data show that chronic stress predicts the occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD). Applications of the ‘stress concept’ (the understanding of stress as a risk factor and the use of stress management) in the clinical settings have been relatively limited, although the importance of stress management is highlighted in European guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention.” Stress and cardiovascular disease. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2012 Apr 3;9(6):360-70. doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2012.45. Steptoe A, Kivimäki M. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, UK.
“The present review provides evidence for the relationship between chronic stress, alterations in HPA activity, and obesity.” Stress and obesity: the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in metabolic disease. Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2009 Oct;16(5):340-6. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e32832fa137. New York Obesity Research Center, St Luke’s Roosevelt Hospital Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.
“Therefore, it is concluded that the establishment of functional foods that correctly regulate stress response must be firmly based upon scientific knowledge and legal regulation.” Stress control and human nutrition. J Med Invest. 2004 Aug;51(3-4):139-45.
“Perceived stress and depressive symptoms co-occurred with life events at baseline and follow-up for participants.” Life events, perceived stress and depressive symptoms in a physical activity intervention with young adult women. Ment Health Phys Act. 2012 Dec 1;5(2):148-154.
“Normal volunteers have provided insight into the stress response to infection that is understood only partially.” Epinephrine, cortisol, endotoxin, nutrition, and the neutrophil. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2012 Oct;13(5):300-6. doi: 10.1089/sur.2012.161. Parks KR, Davis JM. Department of Surgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
“Acute stressor states are associated with a homeostatic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. A hyperadrenergic state follows and leads to a dyshomeostasis of several intra- and extracellular cations, including K, Mg, and Ca.” A dyshomeostasis of electrolytes and trace elements in acute stressor states: impact on the heart. Am J Med Sci. 2010 Jul;340(1):48-53. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e3181e5945b.
“Additionally, nutrigenomics describes how modifications in individual diets can improve health and prevent chronic diseases, as well as obesity, by understanding the effects of a genetic profile in the interaction between food and increase in body weight.” Obesity: genome and environment interactions. 2012 Sep 25;63(3):395-405. doi: 10.2478/10004-1254-63-2012-2244.
“Sweat sodium, potassium, and calcium losses during multiple hours of sustained sweating can be predicted from initial sweat composition. Estimates of sweat zinc losses, however, will be overestimated if sweat zinc conservation is not accounted for in sweat zinc-loss estimates.” Sweat mineral-element responses during 7 h of exercise-heat stress. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007 Dec;17(6):574-82.
“These results suggest that coronary artery ectasia is associated with the deficiency of the trace elements selenium and zinc. Thus, these elements may play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia, as well as in coronary artery disease.” Serum levels of selenium, zinc and copper in patients with coronary artery ectasia. Indian Heart J. 2007 Jan-Feb;59(1):38-41.
“Diabetes is an oxidative stress-related disorder in which erythrocyte zinc uptake may vary as compared to healthy individuals.” Comparative in vitro uptake of zinc by erythrocytes of normal vs Type 2 diabetic individuals and the associated factors. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2004 Dec;17(6):343-9.