STRESS REFERENCES (return to Stress and Nutrition)
“The stress response gives us the strength and speed to ward off or flee from an impending threat. But when it [stress] persists, stress can put us at risk for obesity, heart disease, cancer, and a variety of other illnesses.”
Stress System Malfunction Could Lead to Serious, Life Threatening Disease,
National Institutes of Health, September 9, 2002
“Findings suggest that the association between stress and disease may be moderated in part by unhealthy behaviors.”
Relationships between perceived stress and health behaviors in a sample of working adults.
Health Psychol. 2003 Nov;22(6):638-42.
“The impact of chronic stress on cardiovascular risk has been studied by measuring cortisol in serum and saliva, which are measurements of only 1 time point. These studies yielded inconclusive results. The measurement of cortisol in scalp hair is a novel method that provides the opportunity to measure long-term cortisol exposure. High hair cortisol levels were associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.”
L. Manenschijn, L. Schaap, N. M. van Schoor, S. van der Pas, G. M. E. E. Peeters, P. Lips, J. W. Koper, and E. F. C. van Rossum High Long-Term Cortisol Levels, Measured in Scalp Hair, Are Associated With a History of Cardiovascular Disease Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism -JCEM 2013 98: 2078-2083; doi:10.1210/jc.2012-3663
“Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called ‘priming’.”
Unconscious Fearful Priming Followed by a Psychosocial Stress Test Results in Higher Cortisol Levels.
Stress Health. 2012 Oct 22. doi: 10.1002/smi.2469. Hänsel A, von Känel R.Department of General Internal Medicine, Division of Psychosomatic Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland
“These results suggest that remembered dysfunctional parenting is crucially, and in a gender-specific manner, involved in the coping strategy adopted by male and female cancer patients.”
Dysfunctional remembered parenting in oncology outpatients affects psychological distress symptoms in a gender-specific manner.
Dec;28(5):381-8. doi: 10.1002/smi.2460.Kouzoupis AV, 1st Department of Psychiatry, University of Athens, Medical School, Eginition Hospital, Athens, Greece.
“The three different methods produced an average BG increase of 2.2-fold above basal for high levels of stress over a period of more than a day.”
A practical quantification of blood glucose production due to high-level chronic stress.
2012 Oct;28(4):327-32. doi: 10.1002/smi.2415. Mathews EH, Liebenberg L. Centre for Research and Continued Engineering Development, North-West University, Lynnwood Ridge, South Africa.
“In conclusion, social stress had a strong antinatriuretic effect, which is coincident with noradrenergic and corticoadrenal activation and an increase in plasma aldosterone levels. Activation of these factors may promote sodium retention…”
Neuroendocrine changes and natriuresis in response to social stress in rats.
2012 Aug;28(3):179-85. doi: 10.1002/smi.1411. Epub 2011 Jul 18. Niebylski A, Boccolini A, Bensi N, Binotti S, Hansen C, Yaciuk R, Gauna H. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físico-Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina
“The results of the present study support the hypothesis that stress may play a role in the development of PD.”
The Stressful Life Events and Parkinson’s Disease: A Case-Control Study.
2012 Mar 7. doi: 10.1002/smi.2424. Vlajinac H, Sipetic S, Marinkovic J, Ratkov I, Maksimovic J, Dzoljic E, Kostic V. Institute of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade University, Belgrade, Serbia.
“Epidemiological data show that chronic stress predicts the occurrence of coronary heart disease (CHD). Applications of the ‘stress concept’ (the understanding of stress as a risk factor and the use of stress management) in the clinical settings have been relatively limited, although the importance of stress management is highlighted in European guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention.”
Stress and cardiovascular disease. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2012 Apr 3;9(6):360-70. doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2012.45. Steptoe A, Kivimäki M. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, UK.
“The present review provides evidence for the relationship between chronic stress, alterations in HPA activity, and obesity.”
Stress and obesity: the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in metabolic disease.
Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2009 Oct;16(5):340-6. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e32832fa137. New York Obesity Research Center, St Luke’s Roosevelt Hospital Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.
“Therefore, it is concluded that the establishment of functional foods that correctly regulate stress response must be firmly based upon scientific knowledge and legal regulation.”
Stress control and human nutrition.
J Med Invest. 2004 Aug;51(3-4):139-45.
“Perceived stress and depressive symptoms co-occurred with life events at baseline and follow-up for participants.”
Life events, perceived stress and depressive symptoms in a physical activity intervention with young adult women. Ment Health Phys Act. 2012 Dec 1;5(2):148-154.
“Normal volunteers have provided insight into the stress response to infection that is understood only partially.”
Epinephrine, cortisol, endotoxin, nutrition, and the neutrophil.
Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2012 Oct;13(5):300-6. doi: 10.1089/sur.2012.161. Parks KR, Davis JM. Department of Surgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
“Acute stressor states are associated with a homeostatic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. A hyperadrenergic state follows and leads to a dyshomeostasis of several intra- and extracellular cations, including K, Mg, and Ca.”
A dyshomeostasis of electrolytes and trace elements in acute stressor states: impact on the heart.
Am J Med Sci. 2010 Jul;340(1):48-53. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e3181e5945b.
“Additionally, nutrigenomics describes how modifications in individual diets can improve health and prevent chronic diseases, as well as obesity, by understanding the effects of a genetic profile in the interaction between food and increase in body weight.”
Obesity: genome and environment interactions.
2012 Sep 25;63(3):395-405. doi: 10.2478/10004-1254-63-2012-2244.
“Both glycation and oxidative processes are involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy, and changes in the concentration of Cd, Se, Cr, Zn, and Cu have some impact on the disease progression.”
Effects of trace elements on albumin and lipoprotein glycation in diabetic retinopathy.
Saudi Med J. 2009 Oct;30(10):1263-71.
“Sweat sodium, potassium, and calcium losses during multiple hours of sustained sweating can be predicted from initial sweat composition. Estimates of sweat zinc losses, however, will be overestimated if sweat zinc conservation is not accounted for in sweat zinc-loss estimates.”
Sweat mineral-element responses during 7 h of exercise-heat stress.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007 Dec;17(6):574-82.
“These results suggest that coronary artery ectasia is associated with the deficiency of the trace elements selenium and zinc. Thus, these elements may play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia, as well as in coronary artery disease.”
Serum levels of selenium, zinc and copper in patients with coronary artery ectasia.
Indian Heart J. 2007 Jan-Feb;59(1):38-41.
“Diabetes is an oxidative stress-related disorder in which erythrocyte zinc uptake may vary as compared to healthy individuals.”
Comparative in vitro uptake of zinc by erythrocytes of normal vs Type 2 diabetic individuals and the associated factors.
Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2004 Dec;17(6):343-9.
“The trace elements copper, zinc and selenium are linked together in cytosolic defense against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.”
Role of copper, zinc, selenium and tellurium in the cellular defense against oxidative and nitrosative stress.
J Nutr. 2003 May;133(5 Suppl 1):1448S-51S.
“In the present study, the presence of an association between oxidative stress and trace elements was observed in patients with breast cancer. We suggest that increased oxidative stress in patients with breast cancer may result from changes in the levels of certain trace elements.”
Association between oxidative stress and changes of trace elements in patients with breast cancer.
Clin Biochem. 1999 Mar;32(2):131-6.
“The elevation of iron and zinc in AD brain has the potential of augmenting neuron degeneration through free radical processes.”
Imbalances of trace elements related to oxidative damage in Alzheimer’s disease brain.
Neurotoxicology. 1998 Jun;19(3):339-45.
“Trace elements exert a strong influence on immune function. Debilitated humoral and cellular immune responses may impair virus clearance in infected organisms, and favor the generation of virus variants with altered biological properties.”
RNA virus evolution, population dynamics, and nutritional status.
Biol Trace Elem Res. 1997 Jan;56(1):23-30.
“The present review focuses on biological activity of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and trace elements and discusses the pathophysiological implications of trace elements for hypertension.”
[Trace elements and blood pressure regulation].
Nihon Rinsho. 1996 Jan;54(1):106-10.
“Multivitamin mixture with trace elements significantly protects diabetic patients and the control group against injurous actions of free radicals. That is confirmed by the decrease of plasmatic malondialdehyde and uric acid and by the increase of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes.“
[Administration of multivitamin combinations and trace elements in diabetes].
Cas Lek Cesk. 1995 Feb 1;134(3):80-3.
“Plasma zinc, iron, copper, and selenium and selected blood proteins were measured in 66 men before (BHW) and after (AHW) a 5-d period of sustained physical and psychological stress called Hell Week. Hell Week induced changes characteristic of an acute-phase response in physically active men.”
Biochemical indices of selected trace minerals in men: effect of stress.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1):126-31.
Psychometric Evaluation of a Coping Questionnaire in Two Independent Samples of People with Diabetes.
2012 Nov 5. doi: 10.1002/smi.2466. Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.